2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi

news Oct 07, 2021 0 794
ugochukwu Franklin Amadike @ugochukwu
2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi
BREAKING NEWS
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics “for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex physical systems” with one half jointly to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann “for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming” and the other half to Giorgio Parisi “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.”

The three laureates share this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics for their studies of chaotic and apparently random phenomena. Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann laid the foundation of our knowledge of the Earth’s climate and how humanity influences it. Giorgio Parisi is rewarded for his revolutionary contributions to the theory of disordered materials and random processes.

Complex systems are characterised by randomness and disorder and are difficult to understand. This year’s prize recognises new methods for describing them and predicting their long-term behaviour.

One complex system of vital importance to humankind is Earth’s climate. Syukuro Manabe demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to increased temperatures at the surface of the Earth. In the 1960s, he led the development of physical models of the Earth’s climate and was the first person to explore the interaction between radiation balance and the vertical transport of air masses. His work laid the foundation for the development of current climate models.

About ten years later, Klaus Hasselmann created a model that links together weather and climate, thus answering the question of why climate models can be reliable despite weather being changeable and chaotic. He also developed methods for identifying specific signals, fingerprints, that both natural phenomena and human activities imprint in the climate. His methods have been used to prove that the increased temperature in the atmosphere is due to human emissions of carbon dioxide.

Around 1980, Giorgio Parisi discovered hidden patterns in disordered complex materials. His discoveries are among the most important contributions to the theory of complex systems. They make it possible to understand and describe many different and apparently entirely random materials and phenomena, not only in physics but also in other, very different areas, such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience and machine learning.

“The discoveries being recognised this year demonstrate that our knowledge about the climate rests on a solid scientific foundation, based on a rigorous analysis of observations. This year’s laureates have all contributed to us gaining deeper insight into the properties and evolution of complex physical systems,” says Thors Hans Hansson, chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics.

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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
The 2021 Nobel Prize laureates in physics have found hidden patterns in the climate and in other complex phenomena.

All complex systems consist of many different interacting parts. They have been studied by physicists for a couple of centuries, and can be difficult to describe mathematically – they may have an enormous number of components or be governed by chance. They could also be chaotic, like the weather, where small deviations in initial values result in huge differences at a later stage. This year’s laureates have all contributed to us gaining greater knowledge of such systems and their long-term development.

The Earth’s climate is one of many examples of complex systems. Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann are awarded the Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on developing climate models. Giorgio Parisi is rewarded for his theoretical solutions to a vast array of problems in the theory of complex systems.

The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics has been award with one half jointly to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann “for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming” and the other half to Giorgio Parisi “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.”

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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
“It’s clear that for the future generation, we have to act now in a very fast way.”

- 2021 physics laureate Giorgio Parisi speaks about the current climate situation at this morning's #NobelPrize press conference. Re: 2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi
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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
This year's physics laureates Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann have laid the foundation of our knowledge of the Earth’s climate and how humanity influences it.

They have contributed to the greatest benefit for humankind, in the spirit of Alfred Nobel, by providing a solid physical foundation for our knowledge of Earth’s climate. We can no longer say that we did not know – the climate models are unequivocal. Is Earth heating up? Yes. Is the cause the increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? Yes. Can this be explained solely by natural factors? No. Are humanity’s emissions the reason for the increasing temperature? Yes.

The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics has been award with one half jointly to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann “for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming” and the other half to Giorgio Parisi “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.”

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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
Say hello to new physics laureate Syukuro Manabe who is all smiles following the announcement of his #NobelPrize.

Congratulations to our happy laureate!

Photo: Nobuko Manabe Re: 2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi
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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
Syukuro Manabe – awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics – demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to increased temperatures at the surface of the Earth.

In the 1950s, Japanese atmospheric physicist Manabe was one of the young and talented researchers in Tokyo who left Japan, which had been devastated by war, and continued their careers in the US. The aim of Manabes’s research was to understand how increased levels of carbon dioxide can cause increased temperatures. He led work on the development of physical models to incorporate the vertical transport of air masses due to convection, as well as the latent heat of water vapour.

To make these calculations manageable, he chose to reduce the model to one dimension – a vertical column, 40 kilometres up into the atmosphere. Even so, it took hundreds of valuable computing hours to test the model by varying the levels of gases in the atmosphere. Oxygen and nitrogen had negligible effects on surface temperature, while carbon dioxide had a clear impact: when the level of carbon dioxide doubled, global temperature increased by over 2°C.

The model confirmed that this heating really was due to the increase in carbon dioxide, because it predicted rising temperatures closer to the ground while the upper atmosphere got colder. If variations in solar radiation were responsible for the increase in temperature instead, the entire atmosphere should have been heating at the same time.

Sixty years ago, computers were hundreds of thousands of times slower than they are now, so this model was relatively simple, but Manabe got the key features right. You must always simplify, he says. You cannot compete with the complexity of nature – there is so much physics involved in every raindrop that it would never be possible to compute absolutely everything. The insights from the one-dimensional model led to a climate model in three dimensions, which Manabe published in 1975; this was a milestone on the road to understanding the climate’s secrets.

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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
2021 Nobel Prize laureate in physics Klaus Hasselmann created a model that links together weather and climate, thus answering the question of why climate models can be reliable despite weather being changeable and chaotic. Furthermore, he developed methods for identifying human impact on the observed global temperature.

Obtaining a climate model from noisy weather data can be illustrated by walking a dog: the dog runs off the lead, backwards and forwards, side to side and around your legs. How can you use the dog’s tracks to see whether you are walking or standing still? Or whether you are walking quickly or slowly? The dog’s tracks are the changes in the weather, and your walk is the calculated climate. Is it even possible to draw conclusions about long-term trends in the climate using chaotic and noisy weather data?

One additional difficulty is that the fluctuations that influence the climate are extremely variable over time – they may be rapid, such as in wind strength or air temperature, or very slow, such as melting ice sheets and warming oceans. For example, uniform heating by just one degree can take a thousand years for the ocean, but just a few weeks for the atmosphere. The decisive trick was incor¬porating the rapid changes in the weather into the calculations as noise, and showing how this noise affects the climate.

Hasselmann created a stochastic climate model, which means that chance is built into the model. His inspiration came from Albert Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion, also called a random walk. Using this theory, Hasselmann demonstrated that the rapidly changing atmosphere can actually cause slow variations in the ocean.

Once the model for climate variations was finished, Hasselmann developed methods for identifying human impact on the climate system. He found that the models, along with observations and theoretical considerations, contain adequate information about the properties of noise and signals. For example, changes in solar radiation, volcanic particles or levels of greenhouse gases leave unique signals, fingerprints, which can be separated out. This method for identifying fingerprints can also be applied to the effect that humans have on the climate system. Hasselman thus cleared the way to further studies of climate change, which have demonstrated traces of human impact on the climate using a large number of independent observations.

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Press release: https://bit.ly/3hA8Ra7
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..
Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
Giorgio Parisi – awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics – discovered hidden patterns in disordered complex materials. His discoveries are among the most important contributions to the theory of complex systems. They make it possible to understand and describe many different and apparently entirely random materials and phenomena, not only in physics but also in other, very different areas, such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience and machine learning.

The subject of Parisi’s original work was spin glass. This is a special type of metal alloy in which iron atoms, for example, are randomly mixed into a grid of copper atoms. Even though there are only a few iron atoms, they change the material’s magnetic properties in a radical and very puzzling manner. Each iron atom behaves like a small magnet, or spin, which is affected by the other iron atoms close to it. In an ordinary magnet, all the spins point in the same direction, but in a spin glass they are frustrated; some spin pairs want to point in the same direction and others in the opposite direction – so how do they find an optimal orientation?

In the introduction to his book about spin glass, Parisi writes that studying spin glass is like watching the human tragedies of Shakespeare’s plays. If you want to make friends with two people at the same time, but they hate each other, it can be frustrating. This is even more the case in a classical tragedy, where strongly emotional friends and enemies meet on stage. How can the tension in the room be minimised?

Spin glasses and their exotic properties provide a model for complex systems. In the 1970s, many physicists, including several Nobel Prize laureates, searched for a way to describe the mysterious and frustrating spin glasses. One method they used was the replica trick, a mathematical technique in which many copies, replicas, of the system are processed at the same time. However, in terms of physics, the results of the original calculations were unfeasible.

In 1979, Parisi made a decisive breakthrough when he demonstrated how the replica trick could be ingeniously used to solve a spin glass problem. He discovered a hidden structure in the replicas, and found a way to describe it mathematically. It took many years for Parisi’s solution to be proven mathematically correct. Since then, his method has been used in many disordered systems and become a cornerstone of the theory of complex systems.

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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
2021 Nobel Prize laureate in physics Syukuro Manabe was born in 1931 in Shingu, Japan.

He is a senior meteorologist at Princeton University, USA.

https://scholar.princeton.edu/manabe/home Re: 2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi
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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
Klaus Hasselmann, awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics, was born 1931 in Hamburg, Germany.

He is a professor at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany.

https://mpimet.mpg.de/en/staff/externalmembers/klaus-hasselmann Re: 2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi
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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 07, 2021
Giorgio Parisi – awarded this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics – was born in 1948 in Rome, Italy.

He is a professor at Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy.

https://web.uniroma1.it/sssas/sssas/persone/senior-research-fellows/giorgio-parisi Re: 2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi
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Franklin Amadike Franklin Amadike Oct 13, 2021
“I recommend curiosity in your research. To me, that’s the most important advice I have to give."

- Syukuro Manabe, awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics. Re: 2021 Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann And Giorgio Parisi
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